Research Dissemination Policy

RBC Capital Markets endeavors to make all reasonable efforts to provide research simultaneously to all eligible clients, having regard to local time zones in overseas jurisdictions. RBC Capital Markets' equity research is posted to our proprietary website to ensure eligible clients receive coverage initiations and changes in ratings, targets and opinions in a timely manner. Additional distribution may be done by the sales personnel via email, fax, or other electronic means, or regular mail. Clients may also receive our research via third party vendors. RBC Capital Markets also provides eligible clients with access to SPARC on the Firms proprietary INSIGHT website, via email and via third-party vendors. SPARC contains market color and commentary regarding subject companies on which the Firm currently provides equity research coverage. Research Analysts may, from time to time, include short-term trade ideas in research reports and / or in SPARC. A short-term trade idea offers a short-term view on how a security may trade, based on market and trading events, and the resulting trading opportunity that may be available. A short-term trade idea may differ from the price targets and recommendations in our published research reports reflecting the research analyst's views of the longer-term (one year) prospects of the subject company, as a result of the differing time horizons, methodologies and/or other factors. Thus, it is possible that a subject company's common equity that is considered a long-term 'Sector Perform' or even an 'Underperform' might present a short-term buying opportunity as a result of temporary selling pressure in the market; conversely, a subject company's common equity rated a long-term 'Outperform' could be considered susceptible to a short-term downward price correction. Short-term trade ideas are not ratings, nor are they part of any ratings system, and the firm generally does not intend, nor undertakes any obligation, to maintain or update short-term trade ideas. Short-term trade ideas may not be suitable for all investors and have not been tailored to individual investor circumstances and objectives, and investors should make their own independent decisions regarding any securities or strategies discussed herein. Please contact your investment advisor or institutional salesperson for more information regarding RBC Capital Markets' research.
For a list of all recommendations on the company that were disseminated during the prior 12-month period, please click on the following link: https://rbcnew.bluematrix.com/sellside/MAR.action
The 12 month history of SPARCs can be viewed at https://www.rbcinsight.com/CM/Login.