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This communication has been prepared by RBC Capital Markets (“RBCCM”) sales personnel for institutional clients and your information only and is not a research report prepared by the RBCCM Research Department. Unless otherwise specified, the views expressed herein are the author’s and may differ from the views of RBCCM’s Research Department and from the views of others within RBCCM. The information in the body of this communication is intended to provide general company and/or market commentary, is not intended to provide a sufficient basis for an investment decision and should not be considered a research report. This material may include references to recently published research notes and reports by RBCCM’s Research Department. Complete research notes and reports, including important conflicts disclosures, are available at www.rbcinsight.com. You should assume that trading desks at RBCCM or its affiliates makes markets and/or hold positions, and may have conducted underwriting or other investment banking work in any of the securities referenced herein. Information contained herein has been compiled by RBCCM from sources believed to be reliable, but no representation or warranty, express or implied, is made as to its accuracy, completeness or correctness. Every province in Canada, state in the U.S., and most countries throughout the world have their own laws regulating the types of securities and other investment products which may be offered to their residents, as well as the process for doing so. As a result, the securities discussed in this communication may not be eligible for sale in some jurisdictions. To the full extent permitted by law neither RBCCM nor any of its affiliates or any other person accepts any liability whatsoever for any direct, or indirect or consequential loss or damage arising from any use of the information contained herein. No matter contained in this communication may be reproduced or copied by any means without the prior consent of RBCCM.

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